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JEFMS:CURRENT

VOLUME 03 ISSUE 11 November 2020
Paper Type:Research
Paper Title:Loan Portfolio Quality and Efficiency of Quoted Deposit Money banks in Nigeria
Author:1Gabriel,Femi Goodwill2Ameh O Jacob
About Author: 1,2Department of Accounting, University of Calabar, Nigeria
DOI:https://doi.org/10.47191/ijefm/v3-i11-01
Page No:162-166
Article Info

Banking world over is adjusting to profound changes following the backdrop of current economic downturn with its significant impact on global financial outlook. In the face of corona virus diseases 2019 (covid 19) pandemic, most entities including Banks are experiencing general economic conditions associated with financial market volatility and erosion, deteriorating credits and loan portfolio, liquidity concerns, further increases in government intervention, increasing unemployment and layoffs, broad declines in consumer discretionary spending, increasing inventory levels, and general reductions in production because of decreased demand. This study investigates loan portfolio quality and efficiency of Quoted Deposit Money Banks (DMBs) in Nigeria amidst these phenomena. The population of the study consists of all the quoted Deposit Money Banks in Nigeria with sample of selected8surviving Deposit Money Banks with international authorization in Nigeria as at December, 2019. Using data envelopment analysis. The findings of the study reveals that the percentage value of loan portfolio at risk (VaR) and compliance level to prudential provisioning has negative effect on the efficiency of Quoted Deposit Money banks in Nigeria. While Management response to early warning triggers of non-performing loan has a significant positive impact on efficiency but capital adequacy does not in any way determine how efficient Quoted Deposit Money Banks in Nigeria are performing. The study therefore, recommends that, the management of Quoted Deposit Money Banks in Nigeria should intensify efforts in monitoring their loan portfolio and put in place adjustable risk coverage mechanism for safeguarding the asset quality. The managements of the banks are also advised to strengthen internal credit policies that will screen out potential bad loans and build a healthy and recoverable loan portfolio.

Key-words:
Loan portfolio quality, Bank efficiency, Value at risk and Deposit Money Banks.
Abstract
1) Aghababaei Ataei. & Azizkani, B. (2011). The Relationship between Sizes, Growth and Profitability of Commercial Banks. Applied economics (45), 1751–1765.

2) Alam, K., & Syed, H. (2015a). Developments in Promotion Strategies: Review on Psychological Streams of Consumers. International Journal of Marketing Studies, 7(3), 129-138

3) CBN, (2019). Central Bank of Nigeria Annual Report

4) Diamond, D. W., Rajan, R. (2001). Liquidity creation and financial fragility: A theory of banking. Journal of political Economy vol 109 pp289-327.

5) Kargi, S. 2017. Bank size and efficiency in developing countries: intermediation Approach versus value added approach and impact of non-traditional activities, Asian Economic and Financial Review 3(5): 593–613.

6) Kasman, A., Kasman, S., Ayhan, D., & Torun, E. (2013). Total Factor Productivity and Convergence: Evidence from Old and New EU Member Countries ‘Banking Sectors. Journal of Business Economics and Management (14), 13–35.

7) Kolapo, Ayeni, & Oke. (2018). The Evaluation Model of a Commercial Bank Loan Portfolio. Journal of Business Economics and Management (9), 269–277.

8) Lawrence & Hassan (2018). Bank Lending in Project Finance: The New Regulatory Capital Framework. International Journal of Economics and Finance (5), 218–227.

9) McDaniel, L., Martin, R. D. & Maines, L. A. (2002). Evaluating financial reporting Quality: The effects of financial expertise versus financial literacy. The Accounting Review 7 September: 139-167.
References
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Abstract:100
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Citation
Paper Type:Research
Paper Title:Corporate Culture in the Accounting Service Firms in Hanoi -Application of Theory of Cameron & Quinn (1999)
Author:1Nguyen Hong Linh, 2Nguyen Thi Huong,3 Nguyen Huyen Linh, 4Thanh Thu Trang, 5Pham Thu Trang
About Author:1,2,3,5Faculty of Social work, University of Labor and Social Affairs, Vietnam
4Academy of politics region
DOI:https://doi.org/10.47191/ijefm/v3-i11-02
Page No:167-172
Article Info

The accountants in the accounting service firms in Hanoi all have a high level of education, an understanding of high socio-economic knowledge and a certain level of training can definitely show a culture commensurate with the level of knowledge of them.This research was conducted to measure the corporate culture in the accounting service firms in Hanoi based on theory of Cameron & Quinn (1999).Data were collected through a survey with 105 accountants fromaccounting service firms in HanoiHanoi. With this data, we have used Cronbach's Alpha, EFA and Anova analysis toidentify and measure twelve (12) attributes of corporate culture in the accounting service firms in Hanoi.The results showed that collaborate - clan culture is highly appreciated by accountants, playing a leading role, while the remaining attributes have a supporting role. Based on the findings, some recommendations are given to improve corporate culture in the accounting service firms in Hanoi.

Key-words:
corporate culture, accounting service firms, accountants.
JEL CODES:
M14, M41, O15
Abstract
1) Cameron, K.S., & Quinn.R.E. (1999), “Diagnosing and Changing Organizational Culture”, New York: Addison-Wesley.

2) Do, D.T., Tran, B.M., Nguyen, T.N.L., Truong, D.D., & Tran, M.D. (2019). Determinants influencing the quality of accounting human resources: The case of Hanoi, Vietnam.10th International conference socio – economic and environmental issues in development, 711-726.

3) Duong, H. L. (2018). Corporate culture in sustainable development orientarion of QuangBinh tourism.Industry and trade magazine, 9, 140-144.[Vietnamese]

4) Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2009).Multivariate Data Analysis (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall International.

5) Hair, J. F., Henseler, J., Dijkstra, T., Sarstedt, M., Ringle, C., Diamantopoulos, A., Straub, D., Ketchen, D., GTM, H., &Calantone, R. (2014). Common beliefs and reality about partial least squares: comments on Rönkkö and Evermann. Organizational Research Methods, 17(2), 182-209.

6) Hoang, T., & Chu, N. M. N. (2008).Analyzing researched data with SPSS (2nd Ed.). Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam: Hong Duc Publishing House.[Vietnamese]

7) Mai, T.H.M. (2013). Vietnam Accounting Services, limitations to overcome, Accounting and Auditing Journal, 13(1), 7- 9.[Vietnamese]

8) Phan, T. T. P. (2018). Creating competitive advantages from corporate culture in the context of global economic integration.Industry and trade magazine, 4, 256-261.[Vietnamese]
References
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Paper Type:Research
Paper Title:Developing Sustainable World Class Local Supply Chain Ecosystem in India during the Corona Pandemic
Author:Sandeep Ganpat Kudtarkar
DOI:https://doi.org/10.47191/ijefm/v3-i11-03
Page No:173-182
Article Info

During the ongoing crisis of corona pandemic, designing effective local sourcing programs supported by sound policies can make efficient and sustainable local supply chains for goods and services. Through their relationship with OEMs, local Suppliers shall get benefit of increased revenue, expansion in business operations, knowhow, technical and financial support resulting into sustainable growth of their businesses. The Corona pandemic poses a unique opportunity for India to fill the vacuum in global supply chain created due to negative global sentiments towards China and occupy significant pie in the global supply chain by getting its act together, thinking strategically and out of the box and implementing swiftly during and post corona. This study proposes a socio economic and technical framework to develop sustainable world class local supply chain ecosystem in India to come at the center stage of global supply chain.

Keywords: Local supply chains in India; Corona; sustainability; business continuity; global supply chain; artificial intelligence in supply chains

Abstract
1) Andrew J. & Richard T.(2007).Integrating local suppliers in a global supply network. Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, June 2007, 18(5)

2) Blowfield, M .E. 2005.Going global: how to identify and manage societal expectations in supply chains and the consequences of failure .Corporate Governance, 5 (3), pp.119 – 128.

3) Buxey, G., 2005 .Globalisation and manufacturing strategy in the TCF industry. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 25 (2), pp.100- 113.

4) Charles A. Watts, Chan K. Hahn (1993). Supplier Development Programs: An Empirical Analysis. Journal of Supply Chain Management 29(2):10 - 17DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-493X.1993.tb00002.x

5) Desouza, K.C., Chattaraj, A., Kraft, G., 2003 .Supply chain perspectives to knowledge management: research propositions. Journal of Knowledge Management, 7 (3), pp.129-138.

6) Fawcett S.E., Gregory M. Mccarter M. (2008).Supply Chain Alliances and Social Dilemmas: Bridging the Barriers That Impede Collaboration. January 2008 International Journal of Procurement Management 1(3):318-341

7) Finch, BJ (2006), Operations Now: Profitability, Processes, Performance, 2nd edition, McGraw-Hi(2003). TQM is suppy chain management. The TQM Magazine, 15 (6), pp.361 – 363.

8) Heng, M.S.H., Wang, Y. C., He, X., 2005. Supply chain management and business cycles. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, 10 (3), pp. 157-161

9) Horvath, L. (2001), "Collaboration: the key to value creation in supply chain management", Supply Chain Management, Vol. 6 No. 5, pp. 205-207. https://doi.org/10.1108/EUM0000000006039

10) Jennings (2002).Strategic sourcing: benefits, problems and a contextual model. Management Decision, 40 (1), pp.26 – 34.

11) Johnson P. & Zineldin M.(2003).Achieving high satisfaction in supplier-dealer working relationships. Supply Chain Management: an International Journal, 8 (3), pp.224 – 240.

12) Koh, S.C.L.& Tan, K.H.(2006). Operational intelligence discovery and knowledge- mapping approach in a supply network with uncertainty. Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, 17 (6), pp.687 – 699.

13) Lalwani, C.S., Disney, S.M. & Naim M.M.(2006). On assessing the sensitivity to uncertainty in distribution network design .International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, 36 (1), pp.68-79.

14) Lambert D.M. & Pohlen T.L.(2001). Supply Chain Metrics. The International Journal of Logistics Management, 12 (1), pp.1 – 19.

15) Lang, J.C. (2001). Managing in knowledge-based competition. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 14 (6), pp.539- 553.

16) Lee, L.L. & Billington C.(1995). The evolution of supply chain management models and practice at Hewlett-Packard. INTERFACES 25 (5), 42-63.

17) Leitheiser S., Nusaiba H., Shuvro S., Gulfam T. Jeremy M., Jette S.& Knudsen S.(2020). Lessons from the Governance of Occupational Health and Safety in the Bangladesh Ready-Made Garment Industry. The Regulation of International Supply Chains (RISC) 2020 report.

18) Mason-Jones, R., Naylor, B., Towill D.R.(2000). Engineering the agile supply chain. International Journal of Agile Management Systems; 2 (1), pp. 54 – 61.

19) Meade L. & Sarkis J.(2002).A conceptual model for selecting and evaluating third- party reverse logistics providers .Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, 7 (5), pp.283 – 295.

20) Mouritsen J., Skjøtt-Larsen T. & Kotzab H., (2003). Exploring the contours of supply chain management. Integrated Manufacturing Systems, 14 (8), pp.686 – 695.

21) Mukhopadhyay S.K. & Setoputro R. (2004). Reverse logistics in e-business: Optimal price and return policy .International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, 34 (1), pp.70 – 89.

22) Sadler I. & Hines P. (2002). Strategic operations planning process for manufacturers with a supply chain focus: concepts and a meat processing application. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, 7 (4), pp. 225 – 241

23) Simchi D. & Pierre H. (2020).How Coronavirus Could Impact the Global Supply Chain by Mid-March. Harward Business Review, February 28, 2020

24) Småros, J., Lehtonen J., Appelqvist P. & Holmström, J. (2003).The impact of increasing demand visibility on production and inventory control efficiency. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, 33 (4), pp. 336 – 354

25) Smith, A.D.( 2005). Exploring radio frequency identification technology and its impact on business systems. Information Management & Computer Security, 13 (1), pp. 6 – 28.

26) Srivastava, S.K. & Srivastava, R.K.(2006). Managing product returns for reverse logistics. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, 36 (7), pp.524 – 546.

27) Svensson, G. (2001). The Impact of Outsourcing on Inbound Logistics Flows .The International Journal of Logistics Management, 12 (1), pp. 21 – 35

28) Varma S., Wadhwa S. & Deshmukh, S.G. (2006) .Implementing supply chain management in a firm: issues and remedies. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 18 (3), pp.223 – 243.

29) Vollman, T. E., Berry W. L. & Whybark, C. D. (1997). Manufacturing Planning and Control Systems. McGraw-Hill.

30) Yadav P, Alphs S, D’Souza C, Comstock G & Barton I. (2018). Local sourcing and supplier development in global health: analysis of the Supply Chain Management System’s local procurement in 4 countries. Glob Health Sci Pract. 2018; 6(3):574-583.

31) Zailani S. & Rajagopal, P. (2005).Supply chain integration and performance: US versus East Asian companies .Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, 10 (5), pp.379 – 393.

32) Zeng, A.Z., 2003. Global sourcing: process and design for efficient management. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, 8 (4), pp. 367 – 379.
References
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Abstract:100
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Citation
Paper Type:Research
Paper Title:Evolution of Foreign Direct Investment at the Level of Brics Economies
Author:Anatol MELEGA,
About Author:Stefan cel Mare University of Suceava, 720229, Romania,
DOI:https://doi.org/10.47191/ijefm/v3-i11-04
Page No:183-189
Article Info

The main purpose of this research is to analyze the evolution of direct productive investments in the BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa) and the investment cooperation of the group. The role of the BRICS economies in the political and economic spheres is growing, as they are currently the largest emerging economies and have achieved astonishing economic growth. Direct investment in production in the BRICS countries is an important factor in promoting the growth and development of member countries and promoting global economic integration.Strengthening the investment links of the BRICS group increases the level of trust between member countries, opening up new opportunities for cooperation. Trade and investment links between the BRICS economies create a synergy of development and growth by strengthening their position in the global economy and helping to solve domestic economic and social problems.

Key-words:
BRICS; emerging economies; directly productive investments, economic development.
JEL CLASSIFICATION:
C22; F23; F38; G21; G32.
Abstract
1) Azémar, C., Desbordes, R. (2013). External financial dependence and FDI responsiveness to corporate tax rates. Appl. Econ. Lett. https://doi.org/10.1080/13504851.2013.826859.

2) Bevan, A.A., Estrin, S (2000). The Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment in Transition Economies. Discussion paper No. 2638. Center for Economic Policy Research, London, 1- 57; Blomstrom, M., Kokko, A., Zejan, M., Host Country Competition and Technology Transfer by Multinationals, Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv 130, 521–533, 1994;

3) Bevan, A.A., Estrin, S. (2004). The determinants of foreign direct investment into European transition economies. J. Comp. Econ. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jce.2004.08.006

4) Billington, N. (1999). The Location of Foreign Direct Investment: an Empirical Anlysis. Applied Economics, 31, 65-76.

5) Buckley, P., Clegg, J., Cross, A.R., Liu, X., Zheng, P.(2007). The determinatnts of Chinese outward foreign direct investment. Journal of International Business Studies38, 499-518.

6) Caralicea Mărculescu, Gh. (2010). Brazilian Economy ” s Boom. Analele Universității „Constantin Brâncuși” din Târgu Jiu. Seria Economie, nr. 3/2010

7) European Commission (2015). Commision Guidance note on the implementation of certain provisions of Regulation No 833/2014. Retrieved June 25, 2020 from: https://europa.eu/newsroom/sites//newsroom/files/docs/body/1_act_part1_v2_en.pdf

8) Jadhav, P.(2012). Determinants of foreign direct investment in BRICS economies: Analysis of economic, intsitutional and political factor. Procedia-Social and Behavorial Sciences 37,5-12.

9) Javeria, M. (2020). Foreign direct investment into BRICS: an empirical analysis. Transnational Corporations Review, 12(1).

10) Khan, H., Khan, U. (2019). Financial development and FDI inflows in China. Economics, The Open Acces, Open- Assessment E-Jounal,2019-54. Retrieved 26 August 2020 from : http://www.economicsejournal. org/economics/discussionpapers/2019-54/file

11) Kindleberger, C. (1969). American business abroad (New Haven. CT’).

12) MacDougall, G. D. A. (1960). The benefits and costs of private investment from abroad: A theoretical approach 1. Bulletin of the Oxford University Institute of Economics & Statistics, 22(3), 189–211.

13) Markusen, J. R. (1997). Trade versus investment liberalization. National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper Series, 1997(10) (No. 6231).

14) Nistor, P. (2011). The Evolution of Foreign Direct Investment in Brazil, Russia, India and China Economies (BRIC). Studia Universitatis Petru Maior, Series Oeconomica, 8.

15) Qian, X., Fulton, J. (2017). China-gulf economic relationship under the “belt and road” initiative. Asian Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies, 11(3), 12–21.

16) Reilly, F. (1989). Investments analysis and portfolio management. 3rd edition, The Dryden Press, New York, 23.

17) Sauvant, K., Maschek, W.A., McAllister, G. (2010). Foreign Direct Investment From Emerging Markets: The Challenges Ahead. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

18) UNCTAD (2011). Global Investment Trends Monitor. No. 5, 17 January.

19) UNCTAD (2020). Wolrd Investment Report 2020. Retrieved August 20, 2020 From: https://unctad.org/en/PublicationsLibrary/wir2020_en.pdf.

20) Yutiaeva, I. (2014). The attractiveness of South Africa as an investment destination. World and National Economy 4(31).

21) ***Foreign Investment Law of the People's Republic of China. Retrieved August 20, 2020 from: http://mg2.mofcom.gov.cn/article/policy/China/201909/20190902898870.shtml.

22) ***Foreign direct investment in Brazil. Retrieved August 20,2020 from: https://www.nordeatrade.com/en/explore-newmarket/ brazil/investment.

23) ***Number of enterprises in China receiving foreign direct investment in 2019, by sector. Retrieved August 25, 2020 from: https://www.statista.com/statistics/257084/enterprises-established-with-foreign-direct-investment-in-china-bysector/.

24) *** Increasing foreign direct investment. Retrieved August 25, 2020 from: https://www.drishtiias.com/.

25) *** National Bank of Russia. Retrieved August 25, 2020 from: https://www.cbr.ru.
References
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Abstract:100
Pdf:72
Citation
Paper Type:Research
Paper Title:Corporate Governance Practices and the Performance of Selected Post-Consolidated Nigerian Deposit Money Banks
Author:1Obafemi Tunde Olutokunbo,2Shuaib Abdulbakar Adeade,3 Olaiya Abiola Lawal
About Author:1, Department of Accountancy, Federal Polytechnic, Offa, Kwara State, Nigeria
2, Lincoln University College, Malaysia.
3, Lincoln University College, Malaysia.
DOI:https://doi.org/10.47191/ijefm/v3-i11-05
Page No:190-201
Article Info

The nature of the relationship between Corporate Governance (CG) practices and performance of Nigerian Deposit Money Banks (NDMBs) have yet to be clearly established in the extant literature regardless of the volume of studies. This study therefore examined the relationship between CG practices and the performance of post-consolidated NDMBs. The study adopted a panel research design. Secondary data sourced from annual reports and accounts of sampled NDMBs covering a period of ten (10) years (2010-2019) formed the only source of data for this study. The study population consisted of twenty-two listed NDMBs from where a sample of fourteen was randomly selected.CG proxied by Board Size (BS), CEO duality (CEOdu) and Performance proxied by Return on Equity (ROE) and Return on Asset (ROA) were analyzed using Panel regression The result revealed significant positive relationship between BS (ROE; β = 0.1509, at ρ = 0.0051,), CEOdu (ROE; β = 1.4656, at ρ = 0.0242, ROA; β = 0.6079, at ρ = 0.0060), respectively. The result further revealed negative but insignificant relationship between CG and performance (ROI; β = -0.0127, at ρ = 0.07971, ROA; β = -0.0043, at ρ = 0.7891). The study concluded that there is a correlation between CG variables and performance of NDMBs. The study therefore recommended that NDMBs should ensure that they are not only seen to maintain a clear cut separation of the roles of board Chairman and CEO as a matter of principle but should actually enforce it. In addition to this, they should not deviate from the present adherence to the provisions of the corporate governance practices as it relates to audit committee composition.

.
Key-words:
Corporate Governance; Performance.
Abstract
1)Abdullahi, H., & Valentine, B. (2009). Fundamental and Ethics theories of Corporate Governance. Middle Eastern Finance and Economics, 88 96. Retrieved from http://www.eurojournals.com/MEFE.htm

2) Alchian, A.A., & Demsetz, H. (1972).Production, Information Costs and Economic Organization. American Economic Review. 62, 772 – 795.

3) Aliyu, N.S., Jamil, C.H.M., & Mohamed, R. (2014). The mediating role of management control system in the relationship between corporate governance and the performance of bailed-out banks in Nigeria. International Conference on Accounting Studies , Kuala

4) Berger, A.N., Clarke, G.R.G., Cull, R., Klapper, L., & Udell, G.F., (2005). Corporate governance and bank performance: A joint analysis of the static, selection, and dynamic effects of domestic, foreign, and state ownership. Journal of Banking and Finance, 29 (1): 120-131.

5) Binh, F. & Giang, D. (2012). Effect of regulatory oversight on the association between internal governance characteristics and audit fees. Accounting & Finance,(1): 51-71.

6) Claessens, S., & Fan, J. (2002). Corporate governance in Asia: A survey. International Review of Finance, 71-103.

7) Dabo, Z.(2012). The impact of financial liberalisation on the performance of banks in Nigerian. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 62 (1): 548 – 554.

8) Fame, E.D. (1983). Agency Problems and the Theory of the Firm. Journal of Political

9) Jensen, M., & Meckling, W. (1976). Theory of the fifffrm: managerial behavior, agency costs and ownership structure. Journal of Financial Economics,3 (1): 305–360.

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11) Lin, J. W., &Zhang, J. S. (2009).The effect of audit committee performance on earnings quality. Managerial Auditing Journal, 11, 921−933.

12) Musini, K., & Randoy, D., (2013). The Impact of Non-Financial Company Characteristics on Mandatory Disclosure Compliance in Developing Countries: The Case of Bangladesh.

13) Okougbo, S. (2011). Board Diversity and Firm Performance: The Nigerian Evidence. Corporate Ownership and Control, 9(1): 524–539.

14) Oyebode, A.O. (2009). Determinants of delay in corporate financial reporting in Nigeria,

15) Rose, M. (1999). Growth, beta and agency cost determinant of dividend payout ratios. Journal of Financial Research, 5 (1): 86-112.

16) Sanusi, L. S. (2010). The Nigerian Banking Industry: What went wrong and the way forward. Governor, Central Bank of Nigeria, 1–23, Kano.
References
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Abstract:100
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